WORKING GROUP "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING"

Photo atlas of weathering forms on stone monuments


Reference:
FITZNER, B.& HEINRICHS, K. (2004): Photo atlas of weathering forms on stone monuments.
http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de

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Group 1 - Loss of stone material


Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Monastery, Birkenfeld / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: 45 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Masonry, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 70 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of scales (sW)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Khazne / Treasury, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 75 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of crumbs / splinters (uW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of crumbs / splinters (uW)
Stone type: Tuff
Location: Minster, Neuss / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 80 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of crumbs / splinters (uW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of crumbs / splinters (uW)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Castle, Bad Kösen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW)
Stone type: Greywacke
Location: St. Lambertus Church, Monschau-Kalterherberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Stela, Nemrut Dag / Turkey
Scale:Height of the stela: appr. 2.2 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of crusts (cW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of crusts (cW)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: St. Georg Church, Dinkelsbühl / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of crusts (cW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of crusts (cW)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Hannover / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Back weathering due to loss of undefinable stone aggregates / pieces (zW) Weathering form: Back weathering due to loss of undefinable stone aggregates / pieces (zW)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Wall, Malta
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Rounding / notching (Ro) Weathering form: Rounding / notching (Ro)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Wall, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stones: appr. 20 cm
 
 
 
 

Rounding / notching (Ro) Weathering form: Rounding / notching (Ro)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: St. Johannes Church, Weinsberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the grave stone: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Alveolar weathering (Ra) Weathering form: Alveolar weathering (Ra)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Citadel, Victoria - Gozo / Malta
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Alveolar weathering (Ra) Weathering form: Alveolar weathering (Ra)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Zwingenberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Alveolar weathering (Ra) Weathering form: Alveolar weathering (Ra)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Palace Tomb, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR) Weathering form: Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: St. Stephan Chapel, Ergersheim / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR) Weathering form: Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 

Weathering out of stone components (Rk) Weathering form: Weathering out of stone components (Rk)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Malaga / Spain
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 

Weathering out of stone components (Rk) Weathering form: Weathering out of stone components (Rk)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Zwingenberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Weathering out of stone components (Rk) Weathering form: Weathering out of stone components (Rk)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Monastery, Dafni / Greece
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clearing out of stone components (Rh) Weathering form: Clearing out of stone components (Rh)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Clearing out of stone components (Rh) Weathering form: Clearing out of stone components (Rh)
Stone type: Conglomerate
Location: Monastery, Monserrat / Spain
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Roughening (Rr) Weathering form: Roughening (Rr)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Sculpture, Venice / Italy
Scale:Height of the head: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Microkarst (Rm) Weathering form: Microkarst (Rm)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Head of a statue (Apollo), Nemrud Dag / Turkey
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 

Pitting (Rt) Weathering form: Pitting (Rt)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Rialto Bridge, Venice / Italy
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 20 cm
 
 
 
 

Relief due to anthropogenic impact (aR) Weathering form: Relief due to anthropogenic impact (aR)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Karnak Temple, Luxor / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 75 cm
 
 
 
 

Break out due to anthropogenic impact (aO) Weathering form: Break out due to anthropogenic impact (aO)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Sculptural decoration, Angkor / Cambodia
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Break out due to anthropogenic impact (aO) Weathering form: Break out due to anthropogenic impact (aO)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: St. Wenzel Church, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 4 m
 
 
 
 

Break out due to constructional cause (bO) Weathering form: Break out due to constructional cause (bO)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Cathedral, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Break out due to natural cause (nO) Weathering form: Break out due to natural cause (nO)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Palace Tomb, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 12 m
 
 
 
 

Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO) Weathering form: Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Relief, Venice / Italy
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 2 m
 
 
 
 

Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO) Weathering form: Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Luxor Temple, Luxor / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO) Weathering form: Break out due to non-recognizable cause (oO)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Acropolis, Athens / Greece
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 2 m
 
 
 
 

Group 2 Discoloration / Deposits


Coloration (Dc) Weathering form: Coloration (Dc)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Certosa, Pavia / Italy
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Coloration (Dc) Weathering form: Coloration (Dc)
Stone type: Soapstone
Location: Sculpture, Congonhas / Brazil
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 15 cm
 
 
 
 

Bleaching (Db) Weathering form: Bleaching (Db)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Residential house, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI) Weathering form: Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Cathedral, Zeitz / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1.5 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI) Weathering form: Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Soiling by particles from water (wI) Weathering form: Soiling by particles from water (wI)
Stone type: Basaltic lava, tuff
Location: University, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 115 cm
 
 
 
 

Soiling by droppings (gI) Weathering form: Soiling by droppings (gI)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 80 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Soiling due to anthropogenic impact (aI) Weathering form: Soiling due to anthropogenic impact (aI)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Masonry, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Efflorescences (Ee) Weathering form: Efflorescences (Ee)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Efflorescences (Ee) Weathering form: Efflorescences (Ee)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Masonry, Zeitz / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 90 cm
 
 
 
 

Subflorescences (Ef) Weathering form: Subflorescences (Ef)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: St. Stephan Chapel, Ergersheim / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 

Subflorescences (Ef) Weathering form: Subflorescences (Ef)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Horus Temple, Edfu / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 15 cm
 
 
 
 

Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC) Weathering form: Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Halberstadt / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC) Weathering form: Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC)
Stone type: Tuff
Location: Monastery, Knechtsteden / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 80 cm
 
 
 
 

Dark-colored crust changing the surface (diC) Weathering form: Dark-colored crust changing the surface (diC)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Sculpture, Cathedral, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the head: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Light-colored crust tracing the surface (hkC) Weathering form: Light-colored crust tracing the surface (hkC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Ed-Der / Monastery, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 

Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC) Weathering form: Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC)
Stone type: Porous limestone
Location: Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC) Weathering form: Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Gelnhausen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1.5 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC) Weathering form: Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Sanctuary of Demeter, Eleusis / Greece
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC) Weathering form: Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC)
Stone type: Quartzite
Location: Church of Sao Francisco des Assis, Ouro Preto / Brazil
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Colored crust changing the surface (fiC) Weathering form: Colored crust changing the surface (fiC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Tomb carved from bedrocks, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 20 cm
 
 
 
 

Microbiological colonization (Bi) Weathering form: Microbiological colonization (Bi)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Sculpture, Torcello / Italy
Scale:Width of the head: appr. 20 cm
 
 
 
 

Microbiological colonization (Bi) Weathering form: Microbiological colonization (Bi)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Haut Koenigsbourg / France
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 

Microbiological colonization (Bi) Weathering form: Microbiological colonization (Bi)
Stone type: Tuff
Location: Moai, Easter Island / Chile
Scale:Height of the statue: appr. 5 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Colonization by higher plants (Bh) Weathering form: Colonization by higher plants (Bh)
Stone type: Sandstones
Location: Temple, Angkor / Cambodia
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 5 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Colonization by higher plants (Bh) Weathering form: Colonization by higher plants (Bh)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Lion Triclinium, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 2 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Colonization by higher plants (Bh) Weathering form: Colonization by higher plants (Bh)
Stone type: Travertine
Location: Wall, Meersburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Coloration to dark colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-dkC) Weathering form: Coloration to dark colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-dkC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Town hall, Hamburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1.4 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Coloration to colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-fkC) Weathering form: Coloration to colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-fkC)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Halberstadt / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 80 cm
 
 
 
 

Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (pI-dkC) Weathering form: Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (pI-dkC)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Town hall, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 2 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to dark-colored crust changing the surface (pI-diC) Weathering form: Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to dark-colored crust changing the surface (pI-diC)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: St. Wenzel Church, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC) Weathering form: Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Nuremberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1.3 m
 
 
 
 

Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC) Weathering form: Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC)
Stone type: Tuff
Location: St. Martin Church, Düsseldorf / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC) Weathering form: Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Temple of the Winged Lion, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 1.2 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkC) Weathering form: Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkC)
Stone type: Quartzite
Location: Monastery, Caraca / Brazil
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1.3 m
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkC) Weathering form: Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkC)
Stone type: Sandstone / limestone
Location: Collegiate Church, Thann / France
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Group 3 Detachment


Granular disintegration into powder (Gp) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into powder (Gp)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Cadiz / Spain
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into sand (Gs) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into sand (Gs)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: University, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into sand (Gs) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into sand (Gs)
Stone type: Quartzite
Location: Museu da Inconfidencia, Ouro Preto / Brazil
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into grus (Gg) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into grus (Gg)
Stone type: Granite
Location: Karnak Temple, Luxor / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Crumbling (Pu) Weathering form: Crumbling (Pu)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: City wall, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Crumbling (Pu) Weathering form: Crumbling (Pu)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Crumbling (Pu) Weathering form: Crumbling (Pu)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Schillingsfürst / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Splintering (Pn) Weathering form: Splintering (Pn)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Sanctuary of Demeter, Eleusis / Greece
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 

Crumbling to splintering (Pu-Pn) Weathering form: Crumbling to splintering (Pu-Pn)
Stone type: Quartzite
Location: Town hall, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Single flakes (eF) Weathering form: Single flakes (eF)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Ludwigsburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 

Multiple flakes (mF) Weathering form: Multiple flakes (mF)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 

Scale due to tooling of the stone surface (qS) Weathering form: Scale due to tooling of the stone surface (qS)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Pillar, Cairo, Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Scale due to tooling of the stone surface (qS) Weathering form: Scale due to tooling of the stone surface (qS)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Sanctuary of Demeter, Eleusis / Greece
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 

Single scale (eS) Weathering form: Single scale (eS)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: University, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Single scale (eS) Weathering form: Single scale (eS)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Ludwigsburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 

Multiple scales (mS) Weathering form: Multiple scales (mS)
Stone type: Mudstone
Location: Cheonjeon-Ri Petroglyph, Ulsan / Korea
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 115 cm
 
 
 
 

Multiple scales (mS) Weathering form: Multiple scales (mS)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Monastery, Birkenfeld / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 

Exfoliation (Xl) Weathering form: Exfoliation (Xl)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Cathedral, Zeitz / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Exfoliation (Xl) Weathering form: Exfoliation (Xl)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Castle, Heidelberg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Splitting up (Xv) Weathering form: Splitting up (Xv)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Church, Iphofen / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Splitting up (Xv) Weathering form: Splitting up (Xv)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Residence, Würzburg / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Detachment of a dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkK) Weathering form: Detachment of a dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkK)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Cathedral, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK) Weathering form: Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Cathedral, Magdeburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK) Weathering form: Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: City wall, Naumburg / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Detachment of a light-colored crust changing the surface (hiK) Weathering form: Detachment of a light-colored crust changing the surface (hiK)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Thorn house, Bad Kösen / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 40 cm
 
 
 
 

Detachment of a light-colored crust changing the stone surface (hiK) Weathering form: Detachment of a light-colored crust changing the stone surface (hiK)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: El Merdani Mosque, Cairo / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 25 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes (Gs-eF) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes (Gs-eF)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Chapel, Ergersheim / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes (Gs-eF) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes (Gs-eF)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Thorne house, Bad Dürkheim / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes (Gg-eF) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes (Gg-eF)
Stone type: Quartz porphyry
Location: Chapel, Wettin / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 85 cm
 
 
 
 

Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes (Gg-eF) Weathering form: Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes (Gg-eF)
Stone type: Granite
Location: Sphinx Temple, Giza / Egypt
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Single flakes to crumbling (eF-Pu) Weathering form: Single flakes to crumbling (eF-Pu)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Megalithic Temple of Ggantija, Gozo / Malta
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Crumbling to single scale (Pu-eS) Weathering form: Crumbling to single scale (Pu-eS)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Slab, Giza / Egypt
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 45 cm
 
 
 
 

Splintering to single scale (Pn-eS) Weathering form: Splintering to single scale (Pn-eS)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Acropolis, Athens / Greece
Scale:Width of the dimension stone: appr. 50 cm
 
 
 
 

Single flakes to single scale (eF-eS) Weathering form: Single flakes to single scale (eF-eS)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Cathedral, Aachen / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 30 cm
 
 
 
 

Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS) Weathering form: Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Monastery, Birkenfeld / Germany
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 90 cm
 
 
 
 

Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS) Weathering form: Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS)
Stone type: Limestone
Location: Megalithic Temple of Ggantija, Gozo / Malta
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 35 cm
 
 
 
 

Group 4 Fissures / deformation


Fissures independent of stone structure (vL) Weathering form: Fissures independent of stone structure (vL)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Karnak Temple, Luxor / Egypt
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 70 cm
 
 
 
 

Fissures independent of stone structure (vL) Weathering form: Fissures independent of stone structure (vL)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Agora, Athens / Greece
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 55 cm
 
 
 
 

Fissures dependent on stone structure (tL) Weathering form: Fissures dependent on stone structure (tL)
Stone type: Sandstone
Location: Tomb carved from bedrocks, Petra / Jordan
Scale:Width of the image: appr. 1 m
 
 
 
 

Deformation, convex (lV) Weathering form: Deformation, convex (lV)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Old Cemetery, Bonn / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 60 cm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Deformation, concave (rV) Weathering form: Deformation, concave (rV)
Stone type: Marble
Location: Cemetery, Cologne / Germany
Scale:Height of the image: appr. 65 cm